ARTICLE TITLE: Multiple Modernities: The Features of Bureaucratic Hierarchy and Corruption in Clan Society
AUTHORS: Pain E. , Sharafutdinova D.
ABSTRACT: The article presents analytical efficiency of the new approach to political processes and to the public administration theory based on "multiple modernities" concept. The authors note that public administration theories are not universal. Moreover, the theories are inapplicable outside the countries with liberal-democratic regimes, especially in the states with "hybrid" political regimes and a mixed system of economic, social and cultural relations. These political and socio-economic development types of states can rarely be defined as temporary and transitional, they are rather extremely stable. This is especially true in Eastern societies preserved clan system and patron-client relationships, which permeate the entire civil service hierarchy. The two Central Asian countries Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan were chosen to show that these types of relationship give a rise to corruption, but it simultaneously performs a number of important social functions and even can be used as the resource for modernization by the authorities. The evolutionary transformation of the Eastern society public administration is far from the models described in the framework of the single line modernization theories and liberal-democratic theories of public administration. The article proves the hypothesis about the feasibility of the transition to the "multiple modernities" paradigm and formed "convergent" approach in the development of public administration theory.
KEYWORDS: globalization , hybrid regimes , clan system , corruption , modernization , universalism