ARTICLE TITLE: The Sciential Matrix and the Start of Scientific Work
AUTHORS: Aksyonov G.
ABSTRACT: To determine the time of emergence of science, the author proposes to use a set (matrix) of the essential properties of science. The matrix includes four clusters: 1) individual quality of the scientist, 2) ideological characteristics of the branch of knowledge,3) institutes of sciences, 4) the demand of results of scientific work. This approach facilitates the study of the history of the emergence of science in each country in cross-cultural context. These clusters filled up in XI-XII centuries in the course of Pope Gregory’s VII revolution. The papal revolution has essentially created a new ideological atmosphere of the personal dimension of religious faith that contributed to the emergence of the ethos of a scientist. The science was brought to life by the necessity of combating the Church with the secular power, and a European city at the same time has become a major consumer of scientific knowledge – base of civilization.
KEYWORDS: properties of science , scientific matrix , emergence of an ethos of the scientist , start of science as profession , infrastructure of knowledge , papal revolution of the 11 century , universal system of science , city as consumer of knowledge