ARTICLE TITLE: The Building of Post-Authoritarian Stateness: Spain, 1976-1982
AUTHORS: Zhdanov V.
ABSTRACT: The creation of the Spanish "States of Autonomies" in 1978–1982, which followed the dismantling of the Franco regime as a result of the so-called pacted transition to democracy (1976–1978), is regarded by many representatives of international epistemic communities as a successful example of political modernization that also presupposed a peaceful solution of the stateness problem. The article provides a short description of objective factors of Spanish socioeconomic and political developments that led to the emergence of various legal, financial and municipal regimes known as fueros. Unsuccessful attempts to solve the national question by the government of the Second republic (1931–1939) triggered the civil war, which ended with the establishment of an authoritarian regime that regarded the preservation of an indivisible Spain (understood as the denial of any resemblance to federalism) as its main target. In their desire to avoid a destructive civil conflict the likes of which had more than once disrupted that south-European country, the architects of Spanish democratization had to cope with the political inheritance of the authoritarian regime (most clearly represented by an unreformed state apparatus and officer corps) in their attempts to find political and socioeconomic compromises.
KEYWORDS: Spain , Catalonia , the Basque Country , authoritarian regime , democratization , political pacts , asymmetrical devolution